Database Management Basics

Database management is the process for managing information that supports an organization’s business operations. It includes data storage and distribution to applications and users making changes as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a company that aids in decision-making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is tables that arrange data according to a particular arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, known as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most widely used type of database today. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to modify several databases.

Most DBMSs support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns like the layout of the physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of external views based on different models of data and may include virtual table that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.

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